The rediscovery of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk

December 18, 2014 by
Ferdinand Ulrich
Ferdinand Ulrich

The voice of reason


Friedrich Bauer was a type designer, typographer and printer, whose legacy includes numerous essays and articles on type and printing technology in the late 19th and early 20th century. Without question his essential contribution to type history is the Chronik der Schriftgießereien in Deutschland und den deutschsprachigen Nachbarländern (chronicle of type foundries in Germany and the German speaking neighboring countries), published in 19281. Towards the end of his career, in 1934, Bauer designed a grotesk typeface2 that bears his name; a design that never gained much recognition in the era it was released in. Eighty years later Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk has been rediscovered, carefully digitized and re-released as FF Bauer GroteskTM typeface.

So who is the man behind Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk? A look at Friedrich Bauer’s curriculum vitae reveals a back and forth between the industry, academia and work as writer and editor. Born in 1863, he began his career at age nineteen in the typesetting department at the Leipzig-based Schelter & Giesecke type foundry. Having spent eight years at Schelter & Giesecke he left to become co-editor of the journal Graphischer Beobachter. In 1898 Bauer was hired as head of printing at the Genzsch & Heyse type foundry in Hamburg and also began to work as co-editor of the journal associated with the Archiv für Buchdruckerkunst und verwandte Geschäftszweige (archive of letterpress art and related branches). During this time he also started to frequently contribute to the prestigious annual printing journal Klimschs Jahrbuch.

In the following years Bauer released his first type designs with his new employer: among them Hamburger Druckschrift (1904), Albingia (1906) and Senats-Fraktur (1907). Genzsch Antiqua was first released in 1906 and gradually developed to a well-built typeface of seven weights, Heyse Antiqua followed five years later—both were flagships for the foundry. During that time, Bauer also pursued a teaching career at the Staatliche Gewerbeschule in Hamburg and in 1920 he advanced to chief editor of Klimschs Jahrbuch. By the 1920s Bauer had become a respected type designer and an esteemed writer, in particular for his articles on technological changes and for his literature for beginners.

Genzsch-Antiqua was one of Friedrich Bauer’s earliest type designs. First released in 1906 it was gradually developed to a set of seven weights. Seen here are Genzsch-Antiqua medium in 28pt and the bold weight in 36pt, available at the P98a letterpress shop in Berlin.
Genzsch-Antiqua was one of Friedrich Bauer’s earliest type designs. First released in 1906 it was gradually developed to a set of seven weights. Seen here are Genzsch-Antiqua medium in 28pt and the bold weight in 36pt, available at the P98a letterpress shop in Berlin.

Friedrich Bauer was an esteemed writer over many years. Besides his work as editor for various journals, he also emerged as author of some popular publications for beginners. Here: Reasons to start up as typesetter (orig. *Anfangsgründe für Schriftsetzer*, 10th edition with Polygraph publishers, Frankfurt am Main 1952, 124 pages) and Reasons to start as letterpress apprentice (orig. *Anfangsgründe für Buchdruckerlehrlinge*, 1st edition with Klimsch & Co., Frankfurt am Main 1928, 120 pages).
Friedrich Bauer was an esteemed writer over many years. Besides his work as editor for various journals, he also emerged as author of some popular publications for beginners. Here: Reasons to start up as typesetter (orig. Anfangsgründe für Schriftsetzer, 10th edition with Polygraph publishers, Frankfurt am Main 1952, 124 pages) and Reasons to start as letterpress apprentice (orig. Anfangsgründe für Buchdruckerlehrlinge, 1st edition with Klimsch & Co., Frankfurt am Main 1928, 120 pages).

The annuals published by Klimsch & Co. bear witness to the developments in the printing industry, in type design, in book arts and of the zeitgeist: Each volume documents the ideas and values of the time in words and pictures. A decisive change can be detected in the 1935 annual; two years after the awful political developments in Germany, the visual culture of the new movement had a rapid and profound influence on the industry. A conglomeration of blackletter faces—Fraktur and Schwabacher, but mostly Gotische typefaces—dominate Klimschs Jahrbuch vol. 28. Georg Haupt takes a look at “German types” (orig. Deutsche Schriften) while Konrad F. Bauer (the son of Friedrich Bauer) describes the idea of “construction” in some of these types (orig. Konstruktion und deutsche Schrift). Friedrich Bauer himself, drew a historic overview of the gothic3 printing type (orig. Die gotische Druckschrift) in the annual published a year earlier (vol. 27). In his conclusion Bauer does mention: “no other type has so many possibilities to offer for artistic activity”,4 however, in the same breath he points out: “only in particular cases it will be worthy of consideration as a book face.”5 Ironically his very own Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk is one of two6 new sans serifs to be mentioned in the 1935 annual and as such it appears that Bauer listened to his voice of reason. Interestingly the specimen section suggests mixing blackletter and grotesk in several examples.7

By 1935 the visual culture of the new political movement in Germany had a rapid and profound influence on the industry: a conglomeration of blackletter faces dominates the type specimen section in *Klimschs Jahrbuch* vol. 28. The typefaces on display are Deutschland (Berthold), Deutschmeister (Ludwig Wagner), Tannenberg (Stempel), National (Ludwig & Mayer and Schriftguß), Potsdam (Trennert & Sohn), Element (Bauer Type Foundry), Werbedeutsch (Schelter & Giesecke), Armin-Gotisch (Schriftguß), Standarte (Schelter & Giesecke) and Jochheim-Deutsch (Wilhelm Woellmer)—all major foundries offered types in favor of the new regime. (With kind permission from the collection of Erik Spiekermann.)
By 1935 the visual culture of the new political movement in Germany had a rapid and profound influence on the industry: a conglomeration of blackletter faces dominates the type specimen section in Klimschs Jahrbuch vol. 28. The typefaces on display are Deutschland (Berthold), Deutschmeister (Ludwig Wagner), Tannenberg (Stempel), National (Ludwig & Mayer and Schriftguß), Potsdam (Trennert & Sohn), Element (Bauer Type Foundry), Werbedeutsch (Schelter & Giesecke), Armin-Gotisch (Schriftguß), Standarte (Schelter & Giesecke) and Jochheim-Deutsch (Wilhelm Woellmer)—all major foundries offered types in favor of the new regime. (With kind permission from the collection of Erik Spiekermann.)

In specimens of the early 1930s German type foundries suggested mixing blackletter with geometric sans serifs. The first example shows Element (1934) in the headlines accompanied by Futura (1927), both by the Bauer Type Foundry (not related to Friedrich Bauer). Another showing demonstrates a mix of Jochheim-Deutsch (1934) and Atlantis Grotesk (1933), both by Wilhelm Woellmer type foundry. (Reproduced from *Klimschs Jahrbuch*, volumes 27 and 28, with kind permission from the collection of Erik Spiekermann.)
In specimens of the early 1930s German type foundries suggested mixing blackletter with geometric sans serifs. The first example shows Element (1934) in the headlines accompanied by Futura (1927), both by the Bauer Type Foundry (not related to Friedrich Bauer). Another showing demonstrates a mix of Jochheim-Deutsch (1934) and Atlantis Grotesk (1933), both by Wilhelm Woellmer type foundry. (Reproduced from Klimschs Jahrbuch, volumes 27 and 28, with kind permission from the collection of Erik Spiekermann.)

Consisting of four weights, Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk was originally released by J. D. Trennert & Sohn, an Altona-based8 competitor of Genzsch & Heyse in 1934. Bauer also collaborated with Trennert & Sohn during the latter part of his type design career and developed the typefaces Trennert Antiqua in 1926 and Fortuna in 1930 with them. The first set of weights of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk contained mager (usually equivalent to light, but can also appear as regular), halbfett (medium), fett (bold) and licht (a term used to describe weights with decorative outlines for display use at the time, but not to be confused with the term light), followed by kräftig (in this case regular) and schmalhalbfett (condensed medium).

In *Klimschs Jahrbuch* 1935 Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk appears like a ray of hope among the domination of blackletter faces. In its first release with J. D. Trennert und Sohn the typeface came in four weights: *mager* (light), *halbfett* (medium) and *fett* (bold), from top to bottom, as well as the display weight *licht*.
In Klimschs Jahrbuch 1935 Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk appears like a ray of hope among the domination of blackletter faces. In its first release with J. D. Trennert und Sohn the typeface came in four weights: mager (light), halbfett (medium) and fett (bold), from top to bottom, as well as the display weight licht.

The first extension to Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk was the weight *schmalhalbfett* (condensed medium). Seen here on a type founder’s index card of Genzsch & Heyse, who distributed the type after the war. Their information of the font’s first casting in 1933 on the top of the card is not accurate. (From the collection of Hans Reichardt’s type founder’s index cards.)
The first extension to Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk was the weight schmalhalbfett (condensed medium). Seen here on a type founder’s index card of Genzsch & Heyse, who distributed the type after the war. Their information of the font’s first casting in 1933 on the top of the card is not accurate. (From the collection of Hans Reichardt’s type founder’s index cards.)

A proper regular weight, that sits between the *mager* and *halbfett* weights was released later: *kräftig* as seen here on a specimen card of the Hamburg-based printing house Gustav Petermann. Note the lack of ‘Friedrich’ in the typeface name. (With kind permission from the collection of Dr. Thomas Maier.)
A proper regular weight, that sits between the mager and halbfett weights was released later: kräftig as seen here on a specimen card of the Hamburg-based printing house Gustav Petermann. Note the lack of ‘Friedrich’ in the typeface name. (With kind permission from the collection of Dr. Thomas Maier.)

Following a trend of the late 1920s and early 1930s, Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk was designed with a nod to a style based on geometric shapes . Some of its close relatives are Erbar (1926), Futura (1927), Super Grotesk (1930) and NeuzeitR Grotesk (1932). At the same time, some letterforms feature elements reminiscent of Art Deco; the high waist of the capital ‘G’, as seen in Venus (1911), is a typical example of this. This is also true for the capital ‘M’, that has spread stems and an apex that does not touch the baseline.

Perhaps a strong and unique characteristic in Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk is the feature of different stroke endings, visible in ‘C’ and ‘S’ and in the respective lowercases. The beginning of the stroke has a diagonal cut, while the terminal ends vertically. Features like these emphasize the type’s feel on the printed page: geometric in appearance, but with a less constructed, more human touch. Interestingly the reversed example of the ‘S’ can be found in Fundamental, a typeface designed by Arno Drescher and released only two years earlier—this one looks like it is the wrong way around.

‘C’ and ‘S’ bear some interesting details: note the different stroke terminals, both diagonal and vertical endings—adopted here for FF Bauer Grotesk (above). A reversed example is featured in Arno Drescher’s Fundamental, released in 1931 (below).
‘C’ and ‘S’ bear some interesting details: note the different stroke terminals, both diagonal and vertical endings—adopted here for FF Bauer Grotesk (above). A reversed example is featured in Arno Drescher’s Fundamental, released in 1931 (below).

Before the extension to the *kräftig* weight, the *mager* was advertised as the ideal weight for body text use. The frequent use of the unique capital ‘S’ in this short example text shows the feel of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk on the printed page: geometric in appearance with a human touch. (Specimen text from *Klimschs Jahrbuch*, vol. 17, Frankfurt am Main 1934.)
Before the extension to the kräftig weight, the mager was advertised as the ideal weight for body text use. The frequent use of the unique capital ‘S’ in this short example text shows the feel of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk on the printed page: geometric in appearance with a human touch. (Specimen text from Klimschs Jahrbuch, vol. 17, Frankfurt am Main 1934.)

The licht weight (caps only) is a beautiful addition to Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk. Most geometric sans serif faces at the time had display companions—also known as Zierschrift—designed in double or triple outlines, sometimes equipped with drop shadows or glow effects. Friedrich Bauer seems to have been influenced by a lettering trend of the 1920s: letters constructed from bricks or tiles that protrude from the brick grid of an entire façade. This feature may have derived from a style known as Brick Expressionism that became popular in German and Dutch architecture in the 1920s, when ornaments on walls where shaped from protruding bricks. Perhaps the lack of italics was a crucial reason why Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk could not keep up with its well-built competitors Futura, Super-Grotesk or Neuzeit Grotesk typeface.

Friedrich Bauer’s design for the *licht* weight seems to be inspired by a lettering trend of the 1920s: letters constructed from bricks that protrude from the grid of an entire brick façade. The example above is taken from lettering on the house of the former *Verband der deutschen Buchdrucker* (association of German letterpress printers) on Dudenstraße in Berlin. The building was designed by Max Taut and Franz Hoffmann in 1924 and was finished in 1926.
Friedrich Bauer’s design for the licht weight seems to be inspired by a lettering trend of the 1920s: letters constructed from bricks that protrude from the grid of an entire brick façade. The example above is taken from lettering on the house of the former Verband der deutschen Buchdrucker (association of German letterpress printers) on Dudenstraße in Berlin. The building was designed by Max Taut and Franz Hoffmann in 1924 and was finished in 1926.

Friedrich Bauer died in 1943. The same year Trennert & Sohn was almost completely destroyed during an air raid on Hamburg. Their CEO Carl Lange was hired by Genzsch & Heyse soon after and so the foundry took on most of Trennert’s matrices—initially they were licensed but by 1953 the remaining library was purchased. Genzsch & Heyse already had a strong background in releasing grotesk typefaces before the war9, but none of them ever became very popular and so Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk turned into an essential new part of their library. The licht weight was not re-released, but Genzsch & Heyse added Grotesk-Kursiv, comprised of two italic weights to compliment the mager and halbfett. Eventually there was a demand for a sans serif with flat instead of pointing letter shapes. As a consequence ‘A’, ‘M’, ‘N’, ‘V’ and ‘W’ were redesigned and along with a two-story ‘a’ Genzsch-Grotesk was born. Genzsch-Grotesk did not succeed Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk, both typefaces were offered side by side in the library.

In the late 1940s Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk and many other typefaces of Trennert & Sohn were taken on by Genzsch & Heyse. All weights but the *licht* were reworked and re-released. (With kind permission from Klingspor-Museum, Offenbach am Main.)
In the late 1940s Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk and many other typefaces of Trennert & Sohn were taken on by Genzsch & Heyse. All weights but the licht were reworked and re-released. (With kind permission from Klingspor-Museum, Offenbach am Main.)

Due to the lack of italics in Trennert’s version of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk, Genzsch & Heyse developed Grotesk-Kursiv for the *mager* and *halbfett* weights to make good these deficiencies.
Due to the lack of italics in Trennert’s version of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk, Genzsch & Heyse developed Grotesk-Kursiv for the mager and halbfett weights to make good these deficiencies.

Equipped with a two-story ‘a’ as well as flat instead of pointing letter shapes on ‘A’, ‘M’, ‘N’, ‘V’ and ‘W’, Genzsch-Grotesk was born as Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk’s sister. Both typefaces were available and advertised simultaneously as seen here in two fold-out specimens. (With kind permission from Klingspor-Museum, Offenbach am Main.)
Equipped with a two-story ‘a’ as well as flat instead of pointing letter shapes on ‘A’, ‘M’, ‘N’, ‘V’ and ‘W’, Genzsch-Grotesk was born as Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk’s sister. Both typefaces were available and advertised simultaneously as seen here in two fold-out specimens. (With kind permission from Klingspor-Museum, Offenbach am Main.)

In 1963 Genzsch & Heyse disappeared from the scene and with it most of its typefaces, thus Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk was forgotten. Over the years some of the fonts survived in Hamburg and eventually found their way into the letterpress workshop at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, where Thomas Ackermann and Felix Bonge rediscovered them only recently. Just in time for the 80th anniversary of the typeface they have carefully digitized Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk, reworked and extended the face—released with FontFontR it is now known as the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface.

Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk is available in multiple weights and sizes at the letterpress lab of Burg Giebichenstein University of Art and Design in Halle, Germany. The university purchased the metal type from a Leipzig-based workshop earlier this year. This case displays complete fonts of 28 pt mager (top) and halbfett (bottom).
Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk is available in multiple weights and sizes at the letterpress lab of Burg Giebichenstein University of Art and Design in Halle, Germany. The university purchased the metal type from a Leipzig-based workshop earlier this year. This case displays complete fonts of 28 pt mager (top) and halbfett (bottom).

Instead of relying on historic prints, Ackermann and Bonge decided to use the original proofs from the workshop supplied by the university’s letterpress instructor Richard Scheffler. Well aware of the squeezed edge effect typical of letterpress prints, they carefully digitized only the mager and fett weights, slightly reducing that effect. While the other weights remained untouched, they developed a new arrangement to include further weights. As the new light weight turned out slightly thinner than the mager, regular was added, as well as a book weight, close to the original kräftig. The gap between book and bold was filled with more fine distinction: medium and demi bold in place of the original halbfett. What’s more, the two type designers equipped all six new weights with respective italics (no revival of Genzsch & Heyse’s Grotesk-Kursiv).

On the occasion of the release of the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface, Alexander Roth designed this poster, printed on Chromolux Alu paper. It quotes from color schemes of historic type specimens and those reversed projections cast from the letters may be a hint towards the type’s physical appearance as metal sorts eighty years ago.
On the occasion of the release of the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface, Alexander Roth designed this poster, printed on Chromolux Alu paper. It quotes from color schemes of historic type specimens and those reversed projections cast from the letters may be a hint towards the type’s physical appearance as metal sorts eighty years ago.

Thomas Ackermann and Felix Bonge equipped the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface with a large variety of alternate characters in the upright and italic weights respectively, e.g. a lower case ‘e’ with two different stroke endings, ‘t’ with a straight and a round terminal. It also comes with playful umlauts such as the dots in the bowl of the ‘Ü’.
Thomas Ackermann and Felix Bonge equipped the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface with a large variety of alternate characters in the upright and italic weights respectively, e.g. a lower case ‘e’ with two different stroke endings, ‘t’ with a straight and a round terminal. It also comes with playful umlauts such as the dots in the bowl of the ‘Ü’.

Overall Ackermann and Bonge improved the typeface for better legibility in longer body text. At the same time they preserved the type’s character by emphasizing some of its unique features: pointing shapes in ‘A’ or ‘N’ have been “sharpened”, especially in the bolder weights and the idea of different terminals (as seen in ‘S’) is reintroduced in alternative letters of ‘e’ and ‘g’ for example. Many more alternate characters are included in the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface; among them a two-story ‘a’, one ‘t’ with a loop and another without it, the ‘G’ with a higher and a lower waist and ‘A’, ‘M’, ‘N’, ‘V’ and ‘W’ with pointing as well as with flat apexes.

True to the historic examples of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk and Genzsch-Grotesk, the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface is equipped with both pointing and flat climaxes in ‘A’, ‘M’, ‘N’, ‘V’, and ‘W’.
True to the historic examples of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk and Genzsch-Grotesk, the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface is equipped with both pointing and flat climaxes in ‘A’, ‘M’, ‘N’, ‘V’, and ‘W’.

While ‘G’ and ‘R’ feature a high “Art-Deco-waist” in Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk, they have been digitized in that historic model as well as in more contemporary shapes. ‘Q’ also comes in its original appearance as well as in two new alternative forms.
While ‘G’ and ‘R’ feature a high “Art-Deco-waist” in Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk, they have been digitized in that historic model as well as in more contemporary shapes. ‘Q’ also comes in its original appearance as well as in two new alternative forms.

Ackermann and Bonge recognized the unique characteristics of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk, such as the stroke terminals in ‘C’ and ‘S’, and also applied them to alternative versions of ‘e’ and ‘g’.
Ackermann and Bonge recognized the unique characteristics of Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk, such as the stroke terminals in ‘C’ and ‘S’, and also applied them to alternative versions of ‘e’ and ‘g’.

The FF Bauer Grotesk typeface comes with small caps for even more possibilities to stress words in body text. There are numerous sets of figures (including some with a square or circular outline in positive and negative), a vast collection of ligatures and all the diacritics needed for Pro language support. The fonts also include arrows and hands with pointing fingers as well as more Hanseatic features such as an umbrella with raindrops and an anchor (possibly for tattoos). The coat of arms of the city of Altona is also included and is an inside joke for anyone familiar with the history of the typeface.

All fonts come in eight astonishing sets of figures, including playful numerals in square or circular outlines—both positive and negative. All these sets have alternative shapes for figures ‘1’, ‘2’, ‘4’ and ‘7’.
All fonts come in eight astonishing sets of figures, including playful numerals in square or circular outlines—both positive and negative. All these sets have alternative shapes for figures ‘1’, ‘2’, ‘4’ and ‘7’.

A selection of shapes, arrows and even hands (with little sleeves) round off the font. What’s more, note the selection of “Hanseatic features”: an umbrella, an anchor and the coat of arms of the city of Altona (the home of J. D. Trennert & Sohn).
A selection of shapes, arrows and even hands (with little sleeves) round off the font. What’s more, note the selection of “Hanseatic features”: an umbrella, an anchor and the coat of arms of the city of Altona (the home of J. D. Trennert & Sohn).

The FF Bauer Grotesk typeface features all ligatures in demand. Of course some of them have different sets of stroke endings. Unfortunately the ‘fff’-ligature cannot be used in German words such as Sauerstoffflasche or Schifffahrt—that would be considered a typo.
The FF Bauer Grotesk typeface features all ligatures in demand. Of course some of them have different sets of stroke endings. Unfortunately the ‘fff’-ligature cannot be used in German words such as Sauerstoffflasche or Schifffahrt—that would be considered a typo.

It may seem astonishing that a gem like Friedrich-Bauer-Grotesk has remained hidden for so many years, but it certainly was not the first and may not be the last one to be rediscovered at a university’s letterpress shop. Fortunately Thomas Ackermann and Felix Bonge found the right tone and revived this almost forgotten face in exemplary manner: sifting and emphasizing its unique characteristics, mending its deficiencies and adding what was once missing. An expansion of the FF Bauer Grotesk typeface based on the schmalhalbfett in the future seems to suggest itself and there may certainly be particular interest in a revival of the licht weight as well. There is much hope that this typeface bearing the name of Friedrich Bauer will now receive its appropriate recognition.

Footnotes

1. A reworked digital edition with annotations by Hans Reichard was released in 2011.
2. Grotesk (literally meaning bizarre) is a German term to describe sans serifs, similar to the use of gothic in the English language.
3. As most German type classification terms are borrowed from art and architecture history, Gotische refers to types released in that historic era or later designed in that particular style. Please see footnote (2) for the typographic use of the term gothic in English.
4. Bauer, Friedrich: Die gotische Schrift. In: Klimschs Jahrbuch. Technische Abhandlungen und Berichte über die Neuheiten auf dem Gesamtgebiet der graphischen Künste, issue 27, Frankfurt am Main 1934, p. 27 f.
5. In fact the volume itself proves Bauer’s second point: Element, released by Bauer in 1934, is used on the title of the yearbook and in the section headlines, but all body text is set in Didot (Monotype series 71–12).
6. The other sans serif mentioned in the volume is Atlantis Grotesk (Wilhelm Woellmers type foundry). Extensions of Rhythmus (Schelter & Giesecke) and Super Grotesk (Schriftguß AG) are also listed.
7. Not to forget the release of Krimhilde (with Ludwig & Mayer type foundry) in 1934, an unusual blend of geometric sans serif elements and the Fraktur style.
8. Altona became a borough of Hamburg in 1938.
9. A 1930s’ specimen catalogue of Genzsch & Heyse is titled Schriften zur modernen Typografie (typefaces for the modern typography) and presents a hand-full of sans serifs. Among them: Monument, Cartolina, Titania, Blockschrift and Elephant.

Trademark Attribution Notice

FF Bauer Grotesk is a trademark of Monotype GmbH and may be registered in certain jurisdictions. Neuzeit is a trademark of Monotype GmbH registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and may be registered in certain other jurisdictions. FontFont is a trademark of Monotype GmbH registered in The Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) and may be registered in certain other jurisdictions. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Bibliography and further reading:

• Bauer, Friedrich: Ursprung und Geschichte der Schriftgießerei J. D. Trennert & Sohn, Altona 1930
• Bauer, Friedrich (ed.): Klimschs Jahrbuch. Technische Abhandlungen und Berichte ueber die Neuheiten auf dem Gesamtgebiet der graphischen Künste, vol. 27, Frankfurt am Main 1934
• Bauer, Friedrich: Chronik der Schriftgießereien in Deutschland und den deutschsprachigen Nachbarländern, Offenbach/Main 1928 (reworked edition with annotations by Hans Reichardt was released in 2011)
• Klingspor-Museum, Offenbach am Main: Digitales Archiv der Schriftgießereien [last opened 10.2014] • Seemann, Albrecht: Handbuch der Schriftarten. Schriften aus den Jahren 1933/1935, 5th supplement, Leipzig 1935
• Trennert & Sohn: Hauptprobe Schriftgießerei Trennert & Sohn, Altona 1930